Wednesday, March 18, 2020
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was made equality a top priority on the nations agenda. JFK- wore wrinkled khakiÃ¢â¬â¢s to Congress PET- wore sandals to house of commons JFK-Cuban Missle Crisis PET- War Measures Act JFK-Civil Rights Movement-pushed equality on the top of nations agenda PET-Official Languages Act JFK- Ã¢â¬Å"Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your countryÃ¢â¬ inaugural speech PET- Ã¢â¬Å"The Government has no business in the bedrooms of the nationÃ¢â¬ JFK-new level of idealism and activism PET- Charter of Rights and Freedoms, JFK-Televised debate, he won- Radio-Nixon won- awesome speaker, good presence PET-Same thing, used the media, first PM to do so JFK-Young good looking PET-Young and good looking (in comparison to most pmÃ¢â¬â¢s) JFK- Admitted if he did something wrong-Ã¢â¬ All my life IÃ¢â¬â¢ve known better than to depend on the experts. How could I have been so stupid, to let them go aheadÃ¢â¬ - after Bay of Pigs PET- Never , admitted he was wrong ( implementation of the WMA) JFK- Pushed for the creation of Peace Corps PET-In the latter post, he gained national attention for his introduction of divorce law reform and for Criminal Code amendments liberalizing the laws on abortion, homosexuality, and public lotteries. He also established a reputation as a defender of a strong federal government against the nationalist demands of QuÃ ©bec. JFK- prevented nuclear war PET- and then in 1983-84 to a personal peace initiative in which he visited leaders in several countries in both the eastern and western blocs to persuade them to negotiate the reduction of nuclear weapons and to lower the level of Cold War tensions. These activities led to his being awarded the Albert Einstein Peace Prize. In 1968, Mr. Trudeau ushered an era into Canadian politics that the country was in dire need of. Like John F. Kennedy in the US, Trudeau brought about a mystique to serving one's country in p... Free Essays on Trudeau Free Essays on Trudeau John Fitzgerald Kennedy was made equality a top priority on the nations agenda. JFK- wore wrinkled khakiÃ¢â¬â¢s to Congress PET- wore sandals to house of commons JFK-Cuban Missle Crisis PET- War Measures Act JFK-Civil Rights Movement-pushed equality on the top of nations agenda PET-Official Languages Act JFK- Ã¢â¬Å"Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your countryÃ¢â¬ inaugural speech PET- Ã¢â¬Å"The Government has no business in the bedrooms of the nationÃ¢â¬ JFK-new level of idealism and activism PET- Charter of Rights and Freedoms, JFK-Televised debate, he won- Radio-Nixon won- awesome speaker, good presence PET-Same thing, used the media, first PM to do so JFK-Young good looking PET-Young and good looking (in comparison to most pmÃ¢â¬â¢s) JFK- Admitted if he did something wrong-Ã¢â¬ All my life IÃ¢â¬â¢ve known better than to depend on the experts. How could I have been so stupid, to let them go aheadÃ¢â¬ - after Bay of Pigs PET- Never , admitted he was wrong ( implementation of the WMA) JFK- Pushed for the creation of Peace Corps PET-In the latter post, he gained national attention for his introduction of divorce law reform and for Criminal Code amendments liberalizing the laws on abortion, homosexuality, and public lotteries. He also established a reputation as a defender of a strong federal government against the nationalist demands of QuÃ ©bec. JFK- prevented nuclear war PET- and then in 1983-84 to a personal peace initiative in which he visited leaders in several countries in both the eastern and western blocs to persuade them to negotiate the reduction of nuclear weapons and to lower the level of Cold War tensions. These activities led to his being awarded the Albert Einstein Peace Prize. In 1968, Mr. Trudeau ushered an era into Canadian politics that the country was in dire need of. Like John F. Kennedy in the US, Trudeau brought about a mystique to serving one's country in p...
Monday, March 2, 2020
USS Wasp CV-18 World War II Aircraft Carrier US Navy USS Wasp (CV-18) was an Essex-class aircraft carrier built for the US Navy. It saw extensive service in the Pacific during World War II and continued to be of service after the war until it was decommissioned in 1972. Design Construction Designed in the 1920s and early 1930s, the US Navys Lexington- and Yorktown-class aircraft carriers were intended to conform to the limitations set forth by the Washington Naval Treaty. This agreement placed restrictions on the tonnage of various types of warships as well as capped each signatorys total tonnage. These types of limitations were reaffirmed in the 1930 London Naval Treaty. As worldwide tensions increased, Japan and Italy left the treaty structure in 1936. With the collapse of the agreement, the US Navy commenced designing a new, larger type of aircraft carrier and one which drew from the lessons learned from the Yorktown-class. The resulting class was longer and wider as well as included a deck-edge elevator. This had been used earlier on USSÃ Wasp (CV-7). In addition to carrying a larger number of aircraft, the new design mounted a greatly enhanced anti-aircraft armament. Dubbed the Essex-class, the lead ship, USSÃ Essex (CV-9), was laid down in April 1941. This was followed by USS Oriskany (CV-18) which was laid down on March 18, 1942, at Bethlehem Steels Fore River Ship Yard in Quincy, MA. Over the next year and a half, the carriers hull rose on the ways. In the fall of 1942, Oriskanys name was changed to Wasp to recognize the carrier of the same name which had been torpedoed by I-19 in the Southwest Pacific. Launched on August 17, 1943, Wasp entered the water with Julia M. Walsh, daughter of Massachusetts Senator David I. Walsh, serving as sponsor. With World War II raging, workers pushed to finish the carrier and it entered commission on November 24, 1943, with Captain Clifton A. F. Sprague in command. USS Wasp (CV-18) Overview Nation: United StatesType: Aircraft CarrierShipyard: Bethlehem Steel - Fore River ShipyardLaid Down: March 18, 1942Launched: August 17, 1943Commissioned: November 24, 1943Fate: Scrapped 1973 Specifications Displacement: 27,100 tonsLength: 872 ft.Beam: 93 ft.Draft: 34 ft., 2 in.Propulsion: 8 Ãâ" boilers, 4 Ãâ" Westinghouse geared steam turbines, 4 Ãâ" shaftsSpeed: 33 knotsComplement: 2,600 men Armament 4 Ãâ" twin 5 inch 38 caliber guns4 Ãâ" single 5 inch 38 caliber guns8 Ãâ" quadruple 40 mm 56 caliber guns46 Ãâ" single 20 mm 78 caliber guns90-100 aircraft Entering Combat Following a shakedown cruise and alterations in the yard, Wasp conducted training in the Caribbean before departing for the Pacific in March 1944. Arriving at Pearl Harbor in early April, the carrier continued training then sailed for Majuro where it joined Vice Admiral Marc Mitschers Fast Carrier Task Force. Mounting raids against Marcus and Wake Islands to test tactics in late May, Wasp commenced operations against the Marianas the following month as its planes struck Tinian and Saipan. On June 15, aircraft from the carrier supported Allied forces as they landed in the opening actions of the Battle of Saipan. Four days later, Wasp saw action during the stunning American victory at the Battle of the Philippine Sea. On June 21, the carrier and USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) were detached to mop up fleeing Japanese forces. Though searching, they were not able to locate the departing enemy. War in the Pacific Moving north in July, Wasp attacked Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima before returning to the Marianas to launch strikes against Guam and Rota. That September, the carrier began operations against the Philippines before shifting to support the Allied landings on Peleliu. Replenishing at Manus after this campaign, Wasp and Mitschers carriers swept through the Ryukyus before raiding Formosa in early October. This done, the carriers began raids against Luzon to prepare for General Douglas MacArthurs landings on Leyte. On October 22, two days after the landings commenced, Wasp departed the area to replenish at Ulithi. Three days later, with the Battle of Leyte Gulf raging, Admiral William Bull Halsey directed the carrier to return to the area to provide assistance. Racing west, Wasp took part in the later actions of the battle before again departing for Ulithi on October 28. The remainder of the fall was spent operating against the Philippines and in mid-December, the carrier weathered a severe t yphoon. Resuming operations, Wasp supported landings at Lingayen Gulf, Luzon in January 1945, before taking part in a raid through the South China Sea. Steaming north in February, the carrier attacked Tokyo before turning to cover the invasion of Iwo Jima. Remaining in the area for several days, Wasps pilot provided ground support for the Marines ashore. After replenishing, the carrier returned to Japanese waters in mid-March and began raids against the home islands. Coming under frequent air attack, Wasp sustained a severe bomb hit on March 19. Conducting temporary repairs, the crew kept the ship operational for several days before it was withdrawn. Arriving at Puget Sound Navy Yard on April 13, Wasp remained inactive until mid-July. Fully repaired, Wasp steamed west July 12 and attacked Wake Island. Rejoining the Fast Carrier Task Force, it again began raids against Japan. These continued until the suspension of hostilities on August 15. Ten days later, Wasp endured a second typhoon though it sustained damage to its bow. With the end of the war, the carrier sailed for Boston where it was fitted with extra accommodations for 5,900 men. Placed in service as part of Operation Magic Carpet, Wasp sailed for Europe to aid in returning American soldiers home. With the end of this duty, it entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet in February 1947. This inactivity proved brief as it moved to the New York Navy Yard the following year for an SCB-27 conversion to allow it to handle the US Navys new jet aircraft. Postwar Years Joining the Atlantic Fleet in November 1951, Wasp collided with USS Hobson five months later and sustained severe damage to its bow. Quickly repaired, the carrier spent the year in the Mediterranean and conducting training exercises in the Atlantic. Moved to the Pacific in late 1953, Wasp operated in the Far East for much of the next two years. In early 1955, it covered the evacuation of the Tachen Islands by Nationalist Chinese forces before departing for San Francisco. Entering the yard, Wasp underwent an SCB-125 conversion which saw the addition of an angled flight deck and a hurricane bow. This work was finished late that fall and the carrier resumed operations in December. Returning to the Far East in 1956, Wasp was redesignated as an antisubmarine warfare carrier on November 1. Transferring to the Atlantic, Wasp spent the rest of the decade conducting routine operations and exercises. These included forays into the Mediterranean and working with other NATO forces. After aiding a United Nations airlift in Congo during 1960, the carrier returned to normal duties. In the fall of 1963, Wasp entered the Boston Naval Shipyard for a Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization overhaul. Completed in early 1964, it conducted a European cruise later that year. Returning to the East Coast it recovered Gemini IV on June 7, 1965, at the completion of its spaceflight. Reprising this role, it recovered Geminis VI and VII that December. After delivering the spacecraft to port, Wasp departed Boston in January 1966 for exercises off Puerto Rico. Encountering severe seas, the carrier suffered structural damage and following an examination at its destination soon returned north for repairs. After these were completed, Wasp resumed normal activities before recovering Gemini IX in June 1966. In November, the carrier again fulfilled a role for NASA when it brought on board Gemini XII. Overhauled in 1967, Wasp remained in the yard until early 1968. Over the next two years, the carrier operated in the Atlantic while making some voyages to Europe and participating in NATO exercises. These types of activities continued into the early 1970s when it was decided to remove the Wasp from service. In port at Quonset Point, RI for the final months of 1971, the carrier was formally decommissioned on July 1, 1972. Stricken from the Naval Vessel Register, Wasp was sold for scrap on May 21, 1973. Sources DANFS: USS Wasp (CV-18)NavSource: USS Wasp (CV-18)USS Wasp Association
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Organisational Behaviour - Essay Example An informal group is defined as an association of individuals pooled toward the objective of sharing knowledge and views. Secondly, organisational culture in a broad sense refers to the Ã¢â¬ËcharacterÃ¢â¬â¢ of an organisation. Informal Groups Generally, an informal group belongs to a work group in an organisation and it may not possess a formal structure. Despite its unorganised feature, the group members will have common interests and attitudes. To define, an informal group is not just a collection of people but indicates an internal social structure that gives emphasis on friendship relations rather than official relations (Employee motivation). Obviously organisations contain lot of informal groups. Even big issues can be easily tackled by people working together informally if they are very responsive to events. While dealing with urgent local issues, informal groups can be the best ones since they can easily recognise the actual cause of the issue. According to Bassy (2002, p.27), the idea of informal group came to light at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago. This study was conducted by Elton Mayo, Roethlisberger, and Dickson. Functions of an informal group An informal group carries out functions both for individual workers and their employing organisation. The informal group conducts group discussions in order to come with the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, mission, and set of goal (Informal groups). After setting certain set of goals, they are broken down into short term and long term goals as this strategy assists the group to evaluate ideas and thereby add value to group performance. As Chaneta (2006) points out, the informal groups mainly functions to deal with employee issues. The most important function of an informal group is to meet the worksite security needs of its members. Every employee has the right to get satisfactory and safety worksite environment. There are certain situations when an employee is forced to work under dangerous worksite conditions. For instance, sometimes employees are compelled to work without safety equipments in a factory where there is a chance of chemical exposure. Under such circumstances, the employees ar e at higher risk of adverse worksite conditions. However, this type of issue can be effectively resolved if organisation contain active informal groups. Here, the group members discuss their problems and inform their suggestions to top management; the group power drives the management to respond to the issue immediately. Similarly, solving conflicts among the employees is another major function of informal groups. Nowadays, due to tough market competition, organisations tend to make the worksite atmosphere more strict and productive. This management policy may impose additional stress on workers and naturally it would lead to workplace conflicts. However, informal groups can more effectively deal with worksite conflicts than the management. Likewise, the informal groups serve organisational interests also. Every organisation aims at making its workers maximum productive and thereby increases the profitability. The informal groups functions to encourage its members to be innovative. Although the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental objective is the betterment of employees, ultimately it contributes to organisational efficiency. For instance, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ innovative ideas may assist the organisation to reduce its cost of production or to more efficiently deal with day to day operations. Although informal groups also try
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The Liberal Illusion of the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
The Liberal Illusion of the United States - Essay Example As the report declares the terrorist attack on Washington and New York was the main cause for the change in approach towards international law. The George Bush administration further propelled it on the pretext of saving their country and its citizens. In addition to it, they also drafted certain foreign policies called the Bush doctrine. According to the report findings U.S has the right to utilize nuclear weapons and not abide by the international treaties or agreements for its self-interest. It also states that they will work towards the prevention of any rivalry in the world and utilize the military policy and power for the interest of the U.S capitalism around the world. This imperialist doctrine is a great cause of concern for the entire world. Several other instances have also portrayed the tyranny of the U.S government and its contempt towards international law. U.S government has made the use of cluster bombs in the civilian areas of Afghanistan that has caused great damage to the residence of that area. This action of the Bush administration is a violation against the 1949 Geneva Convention. The detention of 600 soldiers from 40 countries at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba also demonstrates their realistic approach. The United States government has also refused to abide by certain treaties such as the Landmi nes Treaty, the Kyoto Protocol, the Chemical Weapons Treaty and the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty. The attack on Iraq also indicates the change in approach of the U.S government toward the international law.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Charles Perrault's "Cinderella" and Wilhelm and Jacob Grimms' "Aschenputtel" both feature a mistreated, yet kind heroine who, despite overwhelming obstacles, attends a ball and marries a prince. However, the similarities between these two versions of the fairy tale end here. While Perrault's version emphasizes the moral and materialistic concerns of his middle-class audience, Grimms' focus is on the harsh realities of life associated with the peasant culture. Perrault immediately connects with the materialistic values of his middle-class audience as he describes in detail the pampered lifestyle of Cinderella's step-sisters who "lay in rooms with inlaid floors upon beds of the newest fashion" (Classics, 17). Once invited to the ball, the step-sisters contemplate what they will wear. One decides on her "red velvet suit with French trimmings", while the other chooses to accentuate her look with a "diamond stomacher" (Classics, 18). While Perrault describes in detail the pampered lifestyle of this bourgeoisie family, he says much less about the appearance of the misfortunate Cinderella. While Cinderella's clothing is of little interest to Perrault's audience, her "rare goodness and sweetness of temper" (Classics, 17) are esteemed values desired by all the middle-class. When called upon to arrange the hair of her unkind step-sisters for the ball, we are told that "anyone but Cinderella would have dressed their hair awry, but she was good-natured, and arranged it perfectly well" (Classics, 18). After arriving at the ball with the help of a fairy godmother, and winning the affection of the desirable prince, Cinderella "sat down with her sisters showing them a thousand civilities"(Classics, 20). Her rare goodness ... ...igeons pluck out her step-sisters' eyes to repay them for all the evil they brought upon her. Although the heroines in "Aschenputtle" and "Cinderella" both manage to attend the ball and marry the prince despite mistreatment and unreasonable demands, the two versions of the popular fairy tale leave the reader with contrasting feelings. These contrasts can be understood when considering the writers' audiences. The violence and references to nature found in "Aschenputtle" are commonplace in the peasant culture of which the Grimms were fascinated, while the focus on the pampered lifestyle of the bourgeoisie family, and the kindness of Cinderella are aspects Perrault's middle-class audience desires. REFERENCE Griffith, John W and Charles H. Frey. The Custom Edition of Classics of Children's Literature: Fourth Edition. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 1996.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
According to the Conflict theory of sociology, the defining quality of human societies has always been the existence of different classes of people in the society and conflicts of interest between these classes of people. In the United States, wealth and power are concentrated in the hands of a comparatively few wealthy families. The interests of this relatively small but wealthy and politically powerful class of people is always under threat from the masses at large, therefore institutionalized mechanisms exist in the government and society, that allow the rich to retain their wealth and power and the poor to remain poor and non-influential (Mantsios). The media is one such tool for perpetuating the power of the rich. More than half of all the mass media outlets such as newspapers, magazines and movie studios are owned by just 23 large corporations which are in turn, under the control of the upper class. It is not surprising therefore that the media engages in advocacy for the rich and for the continuance of the status quo in the economic, political and social order (Mantsios). The basic strategy followed in the media in order to prevent the masses from rising against the inequalities of the political and social system is Ã¢â¬Ëdivide and conquerÃ¢â¬â¢. This does not necessarily have to be a conscious decision on the part of the media administrators; rather it may simply be a manifestation of the ideology that drives media owners. The media engages in inciting the larger part of the lower classes, which are relatively better-off sections of against those sections of the society which face extreme poverty and destitution. They are painted as threats to a common personÃ¢â¬â¢s security, as parasites living off the taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money and in general as people who are poor through their own bad lifestyle choices (Mantsios). The rich on the other hand are portrayed as benevolent although their corporations engage in practices which are greatly harmful to the common person and are often responsible for the destruction of the livelihood of the poor especially small businesses. Their wealth is portrayed to be the result of hard work and effort even though the rich receive a far larger share of the taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money in the form of agricultural subsidies etc. (Mantsios) The media humanizes the rich by exploring minute aspects of their personal lives and dehumanizes the poor as a violent, lazy and criminal class (Mantsios). The rich are depicted as people with interesting personality quirks and eccentricities but ultimately harmless, those few among the rich who are convicted of criminal behavior are written off as Ã¢â¬Ëa few bad applesÃ¢â¬â¢. In this way the harmful effects of the endemic social stratification in American society and the harmful actions engaged in by upper class oligarchs are glossed over or ignored (Mantsios). Social Stratification Social Stratification is the division of the individuals in a society in observable classes in accordance with their societal influence and wealth. Different societies have different levels of rigidity in their social order. The more socially stratified a society, the less common it becomes for a person born in a lower class to rise up to a higher class through their own efforts (Domhoff). An extreme example of social stratification was the traditional caste system in Hindu society. This system forced people to adopt the trade of their ancestors. Thus priestly families would only produce more priests, soldier families would produce soldiers, servant families would produce only servants and the untouchable outcast families would produce only outcasts. In the United States, one of the manifestations of social stratification can be observed in the education system. The effect of social status can clearly be seen in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance in standardized tests. On average students from high income families have much higher SAT scores than students from low income families (Mantsios, Class in America: Myths and Realities). Another aspect of social stratification is in the job market, people whose parents were blue collar workers are far more likely to be blue collar workers. The people in the upper class on the other hand tend to remain upper class (Domhoff). According to Marxist thought, social stratification arose out of the unequal economic infrastructure of a society; one class owned the means of production and the other class was forced to sell their labor to them. In Marxist thought, the social classes were in perpetual conflict. Marx viewed history as one long struggle of the under classes against the privileges in societal infrastructure that the over classes had built for themselves. Marx viewed the abolition of monarchy as one step in the destruction of over class privilege, now it was no longer acceptable for an upper class to assert its right to rule everyone else based on divine authority, however Ã¢â¬Ëwage slaveryÃ¢â¬â¢ persisted i.e. the lower classesÃ¢â¬â¢ were still obliged to sell their labor to those who owned the means of production, in order to survive. According to Marxist thought the abolition of private ownership was the next step in evolution of a society without social stratification. Revolutionary, Reform, Conservative and Reactionary Social Movements Social movement can be divided into four typed in accordance with their primary characteristics: Revolutionary social movements are movements that intent to bring political upheaval and radical social change to the society. Revolutionary movements often seek to bring about greater social equality and to remove one individual, family, ethnicity or social classÃ¢â¬â¢ monopoly on power and wealth. For example the Abolitionist movement in the American South sought to bring an end to the endemic social institution of slavery. Reform movements seek to bring about positive changes in the social order while not attempting to radically threaten the existing social hierarchy. An example of a reform movement would be a movement that called for better treatment of slaves rather than an end to slavery. Conservative movements seek to perpetuate the existing social order and to resist the influences which they view as threatening to the status quo. The work of pro-slavery preachers in the antebellum American South may be viewed as a conservative movement. Reactionary movements are radical and often violent expressions of opposition to changes taking place in a society, the Southern insurrectionist movement is an example of a reactionary movement. The Hip Hop movement among urban African Americans cannot be neatly fitted into any of these molds. Hip hop may be regarded as reactionary to the extent that it was a reaction to the destruction of the traditional African American social order by outside capitalist forces (Rose). Hip Hop can be regarded as revolutionary movement due to the often radical message of black empowerment that some of the song lyrics convey. Hip Hop can be regarded as a reform movement due to the fact the main exponents of the movement have neither the means and nor the serious inclinations for bringing about radical change. Hip Hop may be viewed as a conservative movement due to the fact that it seeks to perpetuate some social inequalities such as patriarchy (Rose). In short Hip Hop is merely a tool for the voiceless to voice their frustrations and concerns, its value as a cohesive movement to bring about any positive change in the African American community is doubtful. Gender Socialization Gender socialization is the progressive assimilation of a person into the society by adoption of behaviors which the society considers appropriate for his or her gender. The process of gender socialization is initiated at a young age and little girls and boys are taught to behave differently (Lorber). Often the means of gender socialization are quite subtle and may not even be realized by parents or guardians who oversee and enforce the process. A classical example of gender socialization is parents getting dolls for little girls and guns for little boys. This insidiously teaches little girls that their role in life is to be nurturers and to dress well and look nice while boys learn that resorting to violence is a socially appropriate behavior for them. Being male and female is thus an adopted societal role that is forced upon an individual by society and to be socially appropriate an individual must constantly Ã¢â¬Å"do genderÃ¢â¬ (Lorber). This process of Ã¢â¬Å"doing genderÃ¢â¬ is especially exhausting to those individuals who do not feel sufficiently male or female, do not strictly identify with any gender or identify with a different gender than the one considered appropriate for them by the society (Lucal). In Ã¢â¬Å"What It Means to be Gendered MeÃ¢â¬ , Betsy Lucal, a tall female with a male appearance faces many difficulties. She is challenged when trying to use the ladies toilet, service staff addresses her as Ã¢â¬ËsirÃ¢â¬â¢ and she is suspected of fraud when attempting to use her credit card (Lucal). She finds that when she is with her brother, young women try to flirt with her, believing them to be two unattached young men, and when she is with her female friends, people tend to think of them as a heterosexual couples (Lucal).